Unit 2 Study Questions

Modified True/False

Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

____1.The outermost layer of the Earth is called the mantle. _________________________

____2.Density is a measure of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance. _________________________

____3.The transfer of heat by the movement of heated fluid is called conduction. _________________________

____4.Alfred Wegener provided evidence from landforms and climate in support of his theory of the shrinking Earth. _________________________

____5.Pressure increases from Earth's surface toward the center of Earth. _________________________

____6.Oceanic crust near the mid-ocean ridge is younger than oceanic crust farther away from the ridge. _________________________

____7.If subduction occurs faster than oceanic crust can be created, an ocean will expand. _________________________

____8.The mid-ocean ridge occurs along transform boundaries. _________________________

____9.Convection currents form in the mantle when heated materials become more dense. _________________________

____10.The North American plate and the Eurasian plate are moving apart at a very slow rate. _________________________

____11.An upward fold in a rock is called a plateau. _________________________

____12.The squeezing together of rocks by stress is called shearing. _________________________

____13.In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways. _________________________

____14.Geologists use a creep meter to measure the horizontal movement along a fault. _________________________

____15.With the range of data available, geologists cannot predict exactly where and when earthquakes will occur. _________________________

____16.An earthquake on the ocean floor can produce a tsunami, which may grow into a huge wave as it approaches the shore. _________________________

____17.A type of building that absorbs the energy of seismic waves is a fixed-base building. _________________________

____18.When an earthquake occurs, S waves are the first seismic waves to arrive at a given location. _________________________

____19.The Richter scale describes the effects of an earthquake on people, buildings, and land at a given location. _________________________

____20.During an earthquake, seismic waves move outward from the focus in all directions. _________________________

____21.Volcanoes on Triton, a moon of Neptune, erupt fountains of liquid lava. _________________________

____22.A dike forms when magma forces itself between rock layers and hardens. _________________________

____23.Ash, cinders, and bombs build up in a steep pile to form cinder cone volcanoes. _________________________

____24.Volcanoes that form along a mid-ocean ridge occur at a diverging plate boundary. _________________________

____25.Dissolved minerals trapped in magma under tremendous pressure provide the force for a volcanic eruption. _________________________

____26.A pyroclastic flow typically occurs during a(n) quiet eruption. _________________________

____27.A(n) dormant volcano is erupting or may erupt in the near future. _________________________

____28.Magma sometimes forces its way out of the side of a volcano through a side vent. _________________________

____29.During a quiet eruption, a lava flow may set fire to and then bury everything in its path. _________________________

____30.Olympus Mons, the biggest volcano in the solar system, is found on the planet Mars. _________________________

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____31.The layer of Earth made up largely of the rocks basalt and granite is the
 
a.
asthenosphere.
b.
crust.
c.
outer core.
d.
inner core.

____32.As depth beneath Earth's surface increases, temperature and pressure
 
a.
both increase.
b.
both decrease.
c.
approach zero.
d.
stay the same.

____33.How do geologists observe Earth's interior?
 
a.
by visiting deep mines
b.
sending robots deep beneath the surface
c.
by directly looking under the many layers
d.
by recording and studying seismic waves

____34.What is the correct order (starting from the surface) of Earth's layers?
 
a.
crust, outer core, inner core, mantle
b.
mantle, outer core, inner core, crust
c.
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
d.
outer core, inner core, crust, mantle

____35.Earth's mantle is
 
a.
a layer of molten metal.
b.
a layer of hot rock.
c.
a dense ball of solid metal.
d.
a layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin.

____36.Earth's inner core is
 
a.
a dense ball of solid metal.
b.
a layer of molten metal.
c.
a layer of hot rock.
d.
a layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin.

____37.Earth's magnetic field results from the spinning of the
 
a.
mantle.
b.
outer core.
c.
inner core.
d.
crust.

____38.When you touch a hot pot or pan, the heat moves from the pot to your hand.This is called
 
a.
magnetic energy.
b.
indirect evidence.
c.
subduction.
d.
heat transfer.

____39.The transfer of heat through space is called
 
a.
conduction.
b.
convection.
c.
radiation.
d.
subduction.

____40.Scientists think that convection currents flow in Earth's
 
a.
continents.
b.
asthenosphere.
c.
lithosphere.
d.
inner core.

____41.Heat is transferred within a fluid by
 
a.
convection currents.
b.
radiation.
c.
conduction.
d.
density.

____42.When the heat source is removed from a fluid, convection currents in the fluid will
 
a.
speed up.
b.
change direction.
c.
eventually stop.
d.
continue at the same rate forever.

____43.According to Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift,
 
a.
Earth's surface is made up of seven major landmasses.
b.
the continents do not move.
c.
Earth is slowly cooling and shrinking.
d.
the continents were once joined together in a single landmass.

____44.What is Pangaea?
 
a.
the name of a German scientist
b.
the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago
c.
another name for continental drift
d.
the name of an ancient fossil

____45.Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock is called a
 
a.
landform.
b.
continent.
c.
fossil.
d.
landmass.

____46.Which type of evidence was NOT used by Alfred Wegener to support his continental drift hypothesis?
 
a.
evidence from landforms
b.
evidence from fossils
c.
evidence from human remains
d.
evidence from climate

____47.Most geologists rejected Alfred Wegener's idea of continental drift because
 
a.
they were afraid of a new idea.
b.
Wegener was interested in what Earth was like millions of years ago.
c.
Wegener used several different types of evidence to support his hypothesis.
d.
Wegener could not identify a force that could move the continents.

____48.The mid-ocean ridge is
 
a.
the longest chain of mountains in the world.
b.
found only in the Pacific Ocean.
c.
located mostly along coastlines.
d.
a long deep-ocean trench.

____49.What technology did scientists use in the mid-1900s to map the mid-ocean ridge?
 
a.
satellites
b.
deep-sea diving
c.
submarines
d.
sonar

____50.In the process of sea-floor spreading, where does molten material rise from the mantle and erupt?
 
a.
along the edges of all the continents
b.
along the mid-ocean ridge
c.
in deep-ocean trenches
d.
at the north and south poles

____51.How did scientists discover that rocks farther away from the mid-ocean ridge were older than those near it?
 
a.
by observing eruptions of molten material on the sea floor
b.
by mapping rocks on the sea-floor using sonar
c.
by determining the age of rock samples obtained by drilling on the sea floor
d.
by measuring how fast sea-floor spreading occurs

____52.What did scientists in a submersible see when they observed the mid-ocean ridge?
 
a.
a convergent boundary
b.
rocks formed by the eruption of molten material from Earth's mantle
c.
the movement of Earth's plates
d.
convection currents in the ocean

____53.The process by which the ocean floor sinks through a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle is known as
 
a.
convection.
b.
continental drift.
c.
subduction.
d.
conduction.

____54.Old oceanic crust is more dense than new oceanic crust because it is
 
a.
hot.
b.
moving toward a deep-ocean trench.
c.
cool.
d.
farther from the mid-ocean ridge.

____55.Most geologists think that the movement of Earth's plates is caused by
 
a.
gravity.
b.
subduction.
c.
convection currents in the asthenosphere.
d.
Earth's magnetic field.

____56.The geological theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion is the theory of
 
a.
subduction.
b.
plate tectonics.
c.
deep-ocean trenches.
d.
sea-floor spreading.

____57.A collision between two pieces of continental crust at a converging boundary produces a
 
a.
mid-ocean ridge.
b.
deep-ocean trench.
c.
rift valley.
d.
mountain range.

____58.A place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, is known as a
 
a.
transform boundary.
b.
divergent boundary.
c.
convergent boundary.
d.
rift valley.

____59.The place where two plates come together is known as a
 
a.
transform boundary.
b.
divergent boundary.
c.
convergent boundary.
d.
rift valley.

____60.A rift valley forms where two plates
 
a.
sink back toward the mantle.
b.
diverge.
c.
slide past each other.
d.
converge.

____61.Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite, horizontal directions is called
 
a.
shearing.
b.
tension.
c.
compression.
d.
deformation.

____62.Any change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust is called
 
a.
shearing.
b.
tension.
c.
compression.
d.
deformation.

____63.Because stress is a force, it
 
a.
takes energy out of rock.
b.
adds energy to rock.
c.
adds volume to rock.
d.
makes rock harder.

____64.In a normal fault, the part of the fault that lies below the other part is called the
 
a.
hanging wall.
b.
reverse fault.
c.
footwall.
d.
anticline.

____65.In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways with little
 
a.
noise.
b.
shaking.
c.
up-or-down motion.
d.
movement.

____66.Which type of stress force produces reverse faults?
 
a.
shearing
b.
tension
c.
compression
d.
deformation

____67.The land between two normal faults may be uplifted to form a
 
a.
fold.
b.
syncline.
c.
hanging wall.
d.
fault-block mountain.

____68.A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch is called a(n)
 
a.
anticline.
b.
syncline.
c.
plateau.
d.
canyon.

____69.A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level is called a
 
a.
syncline.
b.
plateau.
c.
canyon.
d.
fault.

____70.What happens when friction between the opposite sides of a fault is high?
 
a.
A plateau may form on one side of the fault.
b.
The fault locks, and stress builds up until an earthquake occurs.
c.
Folding of the crust may occur.
d.
The rocks on both sides of the fault easily slide past each other.

____71.The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and triggers an earthquake is called the
 
a.
syncline.
b.
footwall.
c.
epicenter.
d.
focus.

____72.The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing and expanding the ground like an accordion are called
 
a.
S waves.
b.
P waves.
c.
Surface waves.
d.
Mercalli waves.

____73.In what direction do seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake?
 
a.
away from the focus
b.
toward the focus
c.
from the surface to the interior
d.
through the mantle only

____74.S waves are also known as
 
a.
primary waves.
b.
secondary waves.
c.
surface waves.
d.
focus waves.

____75.What type of earthquake wave can travel through both liquids and solids?
 
a.
P waves
b.
S waves
c.
focus waves
d.
surface waves

____76.Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move
 
a.
faster.
b.
slower.
c.
at the same rate.
d.
farther from the epicenter.

____77.Which scale would most likely be used to tell how much earthquake damage was done to people, homes, and buildings?
 
a.
the Richter scale
b.
the Mercalli scale
c.
the moment magnitude scale
d.
the seismic scale

____78.What does a seismograph record?
 
a.
the Mercalli scale rating for an earthquake
b.
the speed of seismic waves
c.
the ground movements caused by seismic waves
d.
the location of the epicenter

____79.The rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake is called the
 
a.
Richter scale.
b.
moment magnitude scale.
c.
mechanical seismograph scale.
d.
Mercalli scale.

____80.Which of the following can cause damage days or months after a large earthquake?
 
a.
the arrival of surface waves
b.
liquefaction
c.
a tsunami
d.
an aftershock

____81.If the Coast Guard warns of a giant wave of water approaching the shore as a result of a major earthquake, they are warning of
 
a.
an aftershock.
b.
liquefaction.
c.
a tsunami.
d.
landslides.

____82.Most earthquake-related deaths and injuries result from
 
a.
tsunamis.
b.
damage to buildings or other structures.
c.
liquefaction.
d.
P waves.

____83.A building designed to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the building during an earthquake is called a
 
a.
fixed-base building.
b.
wood-frame building.
c.
base-isolated building.
d.
brick building.

____84.The best way to protect yourself in an earthquake is to
 
a.
run as fast as you can.
b.
drop, cover, and hold.
c.
go into the basement.
d.
stand under a tree.

____85.A device that uses wire stretched across a fault to measure horizontal movement of the ground is called a
 
a.
creep meter.
b.
laser-ranging device.
c.
tiltmeter.
d.
satellite.

____86.Which of the following monitors a fault by bouncing radio waves off the ground?
 
a.
laser-ranging device
b.
satellite equipped with radar
c.
tiltmeter
d.
creep meter

____87.Which type of fault-monitoring device is most like a carpenter's level?
 
a.
tiltmeter
b.
laser-ranging device
c.
creep meter
d.
satellite

____88.Geologists know that wherever plate movement stores energy in the rock along faults,
 
a.
earthquakes are not likely.
b.
earthquakes are likely.
c.
an earthquake is occurring.
d.
an earthquake could never occur.

____89.The risk of earthquakes is high along the Pacific coast of the United States because
 
a.
there have been no earthquakes there lately.
b.
serious earthquakes are rare east of the Rockies.
c.
satellites have detected increasing elevation of the ground surface.
d.
that's where the Pacific and North American plates meet.

____90.Geologists cannot yet predict earthquakes because
 
a.
they have too much data.
b.
they can't be sure when and where stress will be released along a fault.
c.
they need to know where all past earthquakes occurred.
d.
there are too many faults to monitor.

____91.Before lava reaches the surface it is called
 
a.
rock.
b.
magma.
c.
volcanic ash.
d.
liquid fire.

____92.Volcanic belts form along
 
a.
islands in the Pacific Ocean.
b.
North American mountain ranges.
c.
the boundaries of Earth's plates.
d.
the coast of Antarctica.

____93.The formation of the Hawaiian Islands is one example of
 
a.
volcanoes forming over a hot spot.
b.
volcanoes forming along plate boundaries.
c.
the Ring of Fire.
d.
continental drift.

____94.The volcanoes along converging plate boundaries may form
 
a.
a hot spot.
b.
a part of the mid-ocean ridge.
c.
an island arc.
d.
a subducting plate.

____95.Magma flows upward through cracks in rock because it is
 
a.
highly fluid.
b.
less dense than the surrounding solid material.
c.
highly magnetic.
d.
more dense than the surrounding solid material.

____96.The long tube in the ground that connects the magma chamber to Earth's surface is called the
 
a.
vent.
b.
side vent.
c.
pipe.
d.
crater.

____97.Which of the following helps to determine how easily magma flows?
 
a.
the amount of silica in the magma
b.
the diameter of the pipe
c.
the size of the crater
d.
the number of vents on the volcano

____98.If a volcano's magma is high in silica, the volcano will probably
 
a.
erupt quietly.
b.
remain dormant.
c.
erupt explosively.
d.
produce dark-colored lava.

____99.Pahoehoe is
 
a.
cooler, slower-moving lava.
b.
fast-moving, hot lava.
c.
volcanic ash.
d.
lava with a rough, chunky surface.

____100.A volcano that may erupt again at some time in the distant future is
 
a.
active.
b.
dormant.
c.
explosive.
d.
extinct.

____101.When groundwater heated by magma rises to the surface and collects in a natural pool, it is called a
 
a.
hot spring.
b.
geyser.
c.
vent.
d.
pyroclastic flow.

____102.In volcanic areas, groundwater heated by magma is a source of
 
a.
lava flows.
b.
silica.
c.
geothermal energy.
d.
pyroclastic flows.

____103.Which of the following volcano hazards is made up of rocky particles about the size of a grain of sand?
 
a.
volcanic bombs
b.
pahoehoe
c.
volcanic cinders
d.
volcanic ash

____104.The main hazard from a quiet volcanic eruption is
 
a.
volcanic gases.
b.
lava flows.
c.
geysers.
d.
pyroclastic flows.

____105.If geologists detect many small earthquakes in the area near a volcano, what can they infer about the volcano?
 
a.
It is dormant.
b.
It is probably about to erupt.
c.
It is extinct.
d.
It is a good source of geothermal energy.

____106.Tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash are called
 
a.
shield volcanoes.
b.
cinder cone volcanoes.
c.
composite volcanoes.
d.
lava plateaus.

____107.The huge hole left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain is called a
 
a.
lava plateau.
b.
caldera.
c.
cinder cone.
d.
shield volcano.

____108.When many layers of thin, runny lava build up a high, level area, the result is a
 
a.
lava plateau.
b.
shield volcano.
c.
cinder cone volcano.
d.
composite volcano.

____109.When ash, cinders, and bombs build up in a steep pile around a volcano's vent, the result is a
 
a.
cinder cone volcano.
b.
shield volcano.
c.
composite volcano.
d.
dormant volcano.

____110.When magma squeezes between horizontal layers of rock, it forms a
 
a.
neck.
b.
dike.
c.
sill.
d.
lava plateau.

____111.A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust is called a
 
a.
neck.
b.
dike.
c.
lava plateau.
d.
batholith.

____112.What is the landform that forms when rising magma, blocked by layers of rock, forces the layers of rock to bend upward?
 
a.
volcanic neck
b.
dike
c.
lava plateau
d.
dome mountain

____113.Because Mercury, Venus, and Mars are smaller than Earth and their cores have cooled, scientists think that
 
a.
the volcanic activity on these planets has just begun.
b.
the volcanic activity on these planets has ended.
c.
there never was volcanic activity on these planets.
d.
the volcanoes on these planets are smaller and cooler than those on Earth.

____114.Which planet shows signs that it has had more volcanoes than any other planet in the solar system?
 
a.
Earth
b.
Venus
c.
Mercury
d.
Neptune

____115.When magma hardens in a volcano's pipe, the result will eventually be a landform called a
 
a.
batholith.
b.
dike.
c.
volcanic neck.
d.
sill.

____116.The smooth surfaces on Earth's moon that are visible from Earth are
 
a.
oceans.
b.
craters where meteors smashed into the moon.
c.
areas where lava flowed more than three billion years ago.
d.
mountain ranges.

____117.What provides the force that causes magma to erupt to the surface?
 
a.
the silica in the magma
b.
dissolved gases trapped in the magma
c.
gravity in the lithosphere
d.
the density of the magma

____118.Besides Earth, what are two other bodies in the solar system where volcanic eruptions have been observed?
 
a.
Io, a moon of Jupiter, and Triton, a moon of Neptune
b.
Mars and Venus
c.
Earth's moon and Venus
d.
Saturn and Uranus

____119.The eruptions on Neptune's moon Triton involve
 
a.
molten lava similar to Earth's volcanoes.
b.
sulfur.
c.
liquid nitrogen.
d.
salt water.

____120.Magma that forces its way across rock layers hardens to form a
 
a.
sill.
b.
volcanic neck.
c.
dike.
d.
batholith.

Completion

Complete each sentence or statement.

121.When continental plates pull apart at a divergent boundary on land, a(n) ____________________ forms.

122.Geologists learn about Earth's interior by studying _________________________, which move through Earth.

123.Scientists think that the ____________________, made of solid iron and nickel, spins to produce Earth's magnetic field.

124.The part of the mantle called the ____________________ is made of soft rock that bends like plastic.

125.In the asthenosphere, heat is transferred as soft rock flows slowly in cycles known as ______________________________.

126.A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations is a _________________________.

127.When you touch a hot plate, the transfer of heat from the plate to your hand is called ____________________.

128.The theory of _________________________ was that all the continents once were joined as a single supercontinent and have since drifted apart.

129.To support his theory, Alfred Wegener provided evidence from ____________________, traces of ancient organisms preserved in rock.

130.The energy from the sun that warms your face is transferred by a process called ____________________.

131.The process of ______________________________ continually adds new crust to the ocean floor along both sides of the mid-ocean ridge.

132.Two of Earth's plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, along a ____________________ boundary.

133.Oceanic crust is made up mostly of an igneous rock called ____________________.

134.The longest mountain chain on Earth is the _________________________, most of which lies under the ocean.

135.Subduction occurs where the oceanic crust bends down toward the mantle at a ______________________________.

136.The lithosphere is broken into sections called ____________________, which float on top of the asthenosphere.

137.The formation of volcanoes and mountain ranges can be explained by the theory of _________________________.

138.A continental plate collides with an oceanic plate at a(n) ____________________ boundary.

139.An ocean plate plunges beneath a trench and back into the mantle in a process known as ____________________.

140.Wegener believed that the continents had once been joined in one landmass called ____________________.

141.A fault that is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to move over the foot wall is called a(n) _________________________.

142.The block of rock that lies above a fault is called the _________________________.

143.Blocks of rock uplifted by normal faults are called _________________________ mountains.

144.Layers of rock that bend can produce a downward fold known as a(n) ____________________.

145.A change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust is called ____________________.

146.Geologists use a ____________________ to measure the tilting of the ground along a fault.

147.The stress force that pulls on the crust where two plates are moving apart is called ____________________.

148.The process in which the violent shaking of an earthquake turns soft soil into liquid mud is called ____________________.

149.Earthquake damage can be reduced by making buildings more ____________________ so that they twist and bend without breaking.

150.The seismic waves that travel along Earth's surface and produce severe ground movements are called _________________________.

151.Vibrations that move through the ground carrying the energy released during an earthquake are called _________________________.

152.The scale that measures the strength of an earthquake based on seismic waves and movement along a fault is called the ______________________________ scale.

153.Earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side and up and down only through solids are known as ____________________.

154.Laser-ranging devices can detect even tiny movements of the crust along a ____________________.

155.The ____________________ scale accurately rates the size of seismic waves only for small, nearby earthquakes.

156.Geologists determine earthquake risk by locating where ____________________ are active.

157.The stress force that causes a mass of rock to pull or twist in opposite directions is called ____________________.

158.An earthquake that occurs shortly after a larger earthquake is a(n) ____________________.

159.The point beneath the surface where rock breaks and an earthquake starts is the ____________________.

160.A valley that dips between two parallel ranges of hills was formed by a downward fold in rock called a(n) ____________________.

161.The type of landform produced by runny lava on Venus probably is a gently sloping ____________________ volcano.

162.Volcanic activity on Neptune's moon Triton involves eruptions not of magma, but of _________________________.

163.A large mass of rock that forms from cooled magma inside the crust is called a(n) ____________________.

164.Hardened magma in a volcano's pipe that remains when softer rock around it has worn away is called a(n) _________________________.

165.A huge hole, or ____________________, is left when the roof of a volcanic mountain's magma chamber collapses.

166.A major volcanic belt known as the _________________________ circles the Pacific Ocean.

167.Magma travels through a long tube or ____________________ that connects the magma chamber with the surface.

168.Alternating layers of lava and ash form a type of volcanic landform called a(n) ____________________ volcano.

169.A quiet eruption may produce slow moving, cooler lava that hardens to form rough chunks. This type of lava is called ____________________.

170.Groundwater heated by a nearby body of magma can spray from the ground under pressure, forming a(n) ____________________.

171.Mountains that are formed by volcanoes along a coastline occur at a ____________________ plate boundary.

172.An energy source called ____________________ energy is provided by water heated by magma.

173.A string of islands known as a(n) ____________________ can form from the collision of two oceanic plates.

174.Space probes orbiting Venus have observedbroad, gently sloping volcanoes that produce long, riverlike ____________________.

175.Magma that leaves a volcano's vent is called ____________________.

176.Magma flows easily when it is low in ____________________, a material made of oxygen and silicon.

177.The bowl-shaped area around a volcano's central vent is called a(n) ____________________.

178.Sometimes rising magma is blocked by horizontal layers of rock. The magma forces the layers of rock to bend upward into a landform called a(n) _________________________.

179.The smallest lava fragments produced by an explosive eruption are called volcanic ____________________.

180.An eruption of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases from a volcano is called a(n) _________________________.

Short Answer

181.Which layer of Earth is made up partly of crust and partly of mantle material?

182.Earth's solid inner core spins inside the hot, molten metal of which layer?

183.The asthenosphere is part of which layer of Earth?

184.Overall, which layer of Earth appears to be the thickest?

185.Pressure increases with depth toward the center of Earth. In which layer would you expect pressure to be the greatest?

186.According to the theory of plate tectonics, on which layer of Earth do plates float?

187.Identify the three plates in the diagram and name the materials that make up each plate.

188.Which type of plate boundary occurs at Y?

189.What feature occurs at X and how does it form?

190.Which type of plate boundary occurs at X?

191.What feature occurs at Y, and how does it form?

192.What is happening at Z?

193.Describe the rock layers shown in Diagram A and any forces acting on the rock.

194.Compare diagram B to diagram A. How is it different?

195.In diagram B, which type of fault will form if the stress force continues? Explain.

196.      What caused the rock layers to take on the shape shown in diagram C?

197.Contrast the plate movements that cause the stresses in diagrams B and C.

198.Will a normal fault result from the stresses being applied to the rock unit in diagram D? Explain.

199.What kind of risk is shown on the map and how is this risk determined?

200.According to the map, which part of the United States is least likely to suffer earthquake damage?

201.What earthquake damage is Texas likely to suffer?

202.How do California and Nevada compare in possible severity of earthquake damage?

203.In which direction does the major earthquake risk zone in Idaho run?

204.In which part of Maine should you live if you want the least possible risk of damage from an earthquake? Explain.

205.Name the type of volcano illustrated in diagram A and describe how it forms.

206.Name the type of volcano illustrated in diagram B and describe how it forms.

207.Name the type of volcano illustrated in diagram C and describe how it forms.

208.In the United States, where do volcanoes like the one shown in diagram C occur?

209.What kind of eruption-quiet, explosive, or both at different times-would you expect from each volcano shown?

210.If the magma chamber beneath volcano B empties and then collapses, what kind of feature will form? Explain.

211.Name and describe the type of boundary shown at A.

212.How do volcanoes form at A?

213.Name and describe the type of boundary shown at B.

214.How do volcanoes form at B?

215.In the United States, where can volcanoes like those at B be found?

216.Describe an exception to the patterns pictured at A and B where volcanoes can also form.

Essay

217.Describe the convection currents that occur inside Earth.

218.Compare and contrast what occurs when two oceanic plates collide, when two continental plates collide, and when an oceanic and a continental plate collide.

219.How are magnetic stripes near mid-ocean ridges evidence for sea-floor spreading?

220.According to the theory of plate tectonics, explain what causes changes in Earth's surface.

221.Were Africa and South America ever joined? Cite evidence from a landform and fossil to support your answer.

222.The Eurasian and North American plates share a common border in the Atlantic Ocean. Name this border and explain what plate activity occurs there.

223.Describe how the shapes of present-day continents support the theory of continental drift.

224.Compare and contrast the outer core and the inner core.

225.How is the moment magnitude scale used to measure earthquakes?

226.Distinguish between the focus and the epicenter of an earthquake.

227.Explain the difference between P and S waves in an earthquake.

228.Compare and contrast a normal fault and a reverse fault.

229.What is a plateau and how can one form?

230.Explain how satellites are used to monitor faults.

231.Which is likely to experience more damage during an earthquake, a house built on a solid rock ledge or a nearby house built on a soil river bank? Explain your answer.

232.How does the design of base-isolated buildings reduce their risk of damage by earthquakes?

233.How does the release of trapped gases in magma cause a volcano to erupt?

234.You live on a large volcanic island, but far from the island's active volcano. Besides damage from lava, what volcano hazards could still affect your town and its people?

235.What kind of volcanic activity might you expect to observe at or near a dormant volcano?

236.What kind of eruption is likely to occur in a volcano having magma that is low in silica? Explain your answer.

237.Compare and contrast lava plateaus and dome mountains.

238.Describe how volcanic landforms on Venus compare to those on Earth.

239.Describe the three stages of a volcano.

240.Imagine you are a geologist living 200 years in the future. You want to sample lava from active volcanoes within the solar system. Besides Earth, which bodies of the solar system will you sample and what substances do you expect to find in each sample?